There are only a few polyhedra which can fill space without leaving gaps, without “help” from a second polyhedron. This filling of space is the three-dimensional version of tessellating a plane. Among those that can do this are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron.
If multiple polyhedra are allowed in a space-filling pattern, this opens new possibilities. Here is one: the filling of space by cuboctahedra and octahedra. There are others, and they are likely to appear as future blog-posts here.
Software credit: I made this virtual model using Stella 4d, polyhedral-manipulation software you can buy, or try as a free trial download, at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.