There are six regular, convex four-dimensional polytopes. Five of them correspond on a 1:1 basis with the Platonic solids (as the tesseract corresponds to the cube), leaving one four-dimensional polytope without a three-dimensional analogue among the Platonics. That polychoron is the icositetrachoron, also named the 24-cell and made of 24 octahedral cells. It also happens to be self-dual.
If, in hyperspace, the corners are cut off just right, new cells are created with 24 cubic cells created at the corners, with 24 truncated octahedral cells remaining from the original polychoron. This is the truncated icositetrachoron:
4-dimensional polytopes have 3-dimensional nets. These nets are shown below — first for the icositetrachoron, and then for the truncated icositetrachoron.
This first version shows this polyhedron colored by face type.
In the next image, only parallel faces share a color. This is the traditional coloring-scheme for the great dodecahedron.
Both images were created with Stella 4d, which is available as a free trial download at this website. Also, the obvious change needed with this polyhedron — making its faces regular — is in the next post.
This is the truncated cube, one of the thirteen Archimedean solids.
If the truncation-planes are shifted, and increased in number, in just the right way, this variation is produced. Its purple faces are regular dodecagons, and the orange faces are kites — two dozen, in eight sets of three.
Applying yet another truncation, of a specific type, produces the next polyhedron. Here, the regular dodecagons are blue, and the red triangles are equilateral. The yellow triangles are isosceles, with a vertex angle of ~41.4 degrees.
All three of these images were produced using Stella 4d, available at this website.
I made this by faceting a truncated tetrahedron, giving it faces which are interpenetrating, red, equilateral triangles, as well as yellow crossed-edged hexagons. It can also be viewed as a central tetrahedron, with six more tetrahedra attached to its edges. This was made with Stella 4d, available at this website.
Each of these dodecahedra were modified by truncations at exactly four of their three-valent vertices. As a result, each has four equilateral triangles as faces. In the one above, the Platonic dodecahedron’s pentagonal faces are modified into a dozen irregular hexagons by these truncations, while, in the one below, the rhombic dodecahedron’s faces are modified into twelve irregular pentagons.
Both of these polyhedra were created using Stella 4d, software you can try for yourself at this website.