In this symmetrohedron, the red, blue, and green faces are regular polygons. Only the yellow isosceles trapezoids are irregular.

# Tag Archives: symmetrohedra

# A Symmetrohedron with Tetrahedral Symmetry

Symmetrohedra are symmetrical, convex polyhedra which contain many faces (not necessarily all) which are regular polygons. In this symmetrohedron, the hexagons and triangles are regular, while the quadrilaterals are isosceles trapezoids. I made this symmetrohedron using *Stella 4d*, a program you can try for free at this website.

# A Symmetrohedron

Symmetrohedra are symmetrical polyhedra which have many, but not all, faces regular. I just found one which has square faces, regular hexagons, regular octagons, and a bunch of scalene triangles as the irregular faces.

To form this polyhedron, I started with the great rhombcuboctahedron, then formed its base/dual compound. I then took the convex hull of this compound, and then formed the dual of that convex hull, producing the polyhedron you see above. All of this was done using *Stella 4d: Polyhedron Navigator*, which you can try for free at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.

# Four Symmetrohedra with Tetrahedral Symmetry

Symmetrohedra are polyhedra with some form of polyhedral symmetry, and many (not necessarily all) regular faces. The first two symmetrohedra here each include four regular enneagons as faces.

The next two symmetrohedra each include four regular dodecagons as faces.

All four of these were made using *Stella 4d*, which you can try out for free at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.

# Two Symmetrohedra Which Feature Enneagons

These two symmetrohedra were created using *Stella 4d*, software you can try for free right here.

## A Symmetrohedron Featuring Regular Hexadecagons and Regular Hexagons

### Image

I made this using *Stella4d*, which you can try for free right here.

# Four Symmetrohedra

Symmetrohedra are polyhedra with some form of polyhedral symmetry, all faces convex, and many (but not all) faces regular. Here are four I have found using *Stella 4d*, a polyhedron-manipulation program you can try for yourself at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.

The second of these symmetrohedra is also a zonohedron, and is colored the way I usually color zonohedra, coloring faces simply by number of sides per face. That is why some of the red octagons in that solid are regular, while others are elongated. The other three symmetrohedra are colored by face type, with the modification that the fourth one’s scalene triangles are all given the same color.

These symmetrohedra were all generated using *Stella 4d*, a program you may try for yourself at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.

# Bowtie Cubes in a Polyhedral Honeycomb

This polyhedron has been described here as a “bowtie cube.” It is possible to augment its six dodecagonal faces with additional bowtie cubes. Also, the bowtie cube’s hexagonal faces may be augmented by truncated octahedra.

These two polyhedra “tessellate” space, together which square pyramidal bifrustrums, meeting in pairs, which fill the blue-and-green “holes” seen above. This last image shows more of the “honeycomb” produced after yet more of these same polyhedra have been added.

This pattern may be expanded into space without limit. I discovered it while playing with *Stella 4d*, software you may try for free at this website.

# A Symmetrohedron with 74 Faces

Symmetrohedra have many regular faces, but irregular faces are allowed in them as well. The octagons, hexagons, and squares in this polyhedron are regular, but the 48 triangles are scalene. Here’s what it looks like with these triangles rendered invisible:

*Stella 4d* was used to make these images; it may be tried for free at this website: http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.

# The Second of Dave Smith’s “Bowtie” Polyhedral Discoveries, and Related Polyhedra

Dave Smith discovered the polyhedron in the last post here, shown below, with the faces hidden, to reveal how the edges appear on the back side of the figure, as it rotates. (Other views of it may be found here.)

So far, all of Smith’s “bowtie” polyhedral discoveries have been convex, and have had only two types of face: regular polygons, plus isosceles trapezoids with three equal edge lengths — a length which is in the golden ratio with that of the fourth side, which is the shorter base.

He also found another solid: the second of Smith’s polyhedral discoveries in the class of bowtie symmetrohedra. In it, each of the four pentagonal faces of the original discovery is augmented by a pentagonal pyramid which uses equilateral triangles as its lateral faces. Here is Smith’s original model of this figure, in which the trapezoids are invisible. (My guess is that these first models, pictures of which Dave e-mailed to me, were built with Polydrons, or perhaps Jovotoys.)

With *Stella 4d *(available here), the program I use to make all the rotating geometrical pictures on this blog, I was able to create a version (by modifying the one created by via collaboration between five people, as described in the last post) of this interesting icositetrahedron which shows all four trapezoidal faces, as well as the twenty triangles.

Here is another view: trapezoids rendered invisible again, and triangles in “rainbow color” mode.

It is difficult to find linkages between the tetrapentagonal octahedron Smith found, and other named polyhedra (meaning I haven’t yet figured out how), but this is not the case with this interesting icositetrahedron Smith found. With some direct, *Stella*-aided polyhedron-manipulation, and a bit of research, I was able to find one of the Johnson solids which is isomorphic to Smith’s icositetrahedral discovery. In this figure (J90, the disphenocingulum), the trapezoids of this icositetrahedron are replaced by squares. In the pyramids, the triangles do retain regularity, but, to do so, the pentagonal base of each pyramid is forced to become noncoplanar. This can be difficult to see, however, for the now-skewed bases of these four pyramids are hidden inside the figure.

Both of these solids Smith found, so far (I am confident that more await discovery, by him or by others) are also golden polyhedra, in the sense that they have two edge lengths, and these edge lengths are in the golden ratio. The first such polyhedron I found was the golden icosahedron, but there are many more — for example, there is more than one way to distort the edge lengths of a tetrahedron to make golden tetrahedra.

To my knowledge, no ones knows how many golden polyhedra exist, for they have not been enumerated, nor has it even been proven, nor disproven, that their number is finite. At this point, we simply do not know . . . and that is a good way to define areas in mathematics in which new work remains to be done. A related definition is one for a mathematician: a creature who cannot resist a good puzzle.