I just got an e-mail, from Tumblr (I used to blog a lot there, before coming here to WordPress). The e-mail has the title, “Your Dashboard is literally on fire.” I’m now afraid to go look at my car, OR log on to my old Tumblr account. I dislike being burned.
I looked up enough asteroid masses to use them to make this pie chart. I now have three reactions.
First: oh, that’s why only Ceres is round!
Second: who was stupid enough to name an asteroid Europa? That name is taken!
Third: wow — those small ones sure do make up a lot of the total!
Crystals and crystalline growth have been studied for centuries because of, at least in part, their symmetry. Crystals are cut in such a way as to increase this symmetry even more, because most people find symmetry attractive. However, where does the original symmetry in a crystal come from? Without it, jewelers who cut gemstones would not exist, for the symmetry of crystalline minerals themselves is what gives such professionals the raw materials with which to work.
To understand anything about how crystals grow, one must look at a bit of chemistry. The growth of crystals:
- Involves very small pieces: atoms, molecules, ions, and/or polyatomic ions
- Involves a small set of simple rules for how these small pieces attach to each other
Why small pieces? That’s easy: we live in a universe where atoms are tiny, compared to anything we can see. Why is the number of rules for combining parts small, though? Well, in some materials, there are, instead, large numbers of ways that atoms, etc., arrange themselves — and when that happens, the result, on the scale we can see, is simply a mess. Keep the number of ways parts can combine extremely limited, though, and it is more likely that the result will possess the symmetry which is the source of the aesthetic appeal of crystals.
This can be modeled, mathematically, by using polyhedral clusters. For example, I can take a tetrahedron, and them augment each of its four faces with a rhombicosidodecahedron. The result is this tetrahedral cluster:
Next, having chosen my building blocks, I need a set of rules for combining them. I choose, for this example, these three:
- Only attach one tetrahedral cluster of rhombicosidodechedra to another at triangular faces — and only use those four triangles, one on each rhombicosidodecahedron, which are at the greatest distance from the cluster’s center.
- Don’t allow one tetrahedral cluster to overlap another one.
- When you add a tetrahedral cluster in one location, also add others which are in identical locations in the overall, growing cluster.
Using these rules, the first augmentation produces this:
That, in turn, leads to this:
Next, after another round of augmentation:
In nature, of course, far more steps than this are needed to produce a crystal large enough to be visible. Different crystals, of course, have different shapes and symmetries. How can this simulation-method be altered to model different types of crystalline growth? Simple: use different polyhedra, and/or change the rules you select as augmentation guidelines, and you’ll get a different result.
[Note: all of these images were created using Stella 4d: Polyhedron Navigator. This program is available at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.]
Truncated tetrahedra make interesting building blocks. In the images below, the truncated tetrahedron “atoms” are grouped into four-part “molecules,” each with a triangular face pointed toward the molecular center, which is found in a small tetrahedral hole between the four truncated tetrahedra. These four-part “molecules” are then attached to other, always with three coplanar triangular faces from one “molecule” meeting three from the other. If you start from a central “molecule,” and let such a cluster grow for a small number of iterations, you get this:
What does the cluster above look like if even more truncated tetrahedra are added, but without allowing overlap to occur? Like this:
Like the truncated tetrahedron itself, these sprawling clusters have tetrahedral symmetry. To keep such symmetry while building these clusters, of course, one must be careful about the exact placement of the pieces — and doing this becomes more difficult as the cluster grows ever larger. I was able to take this one more step:
All of these images were created using Stella 4d: Polyhedron Navigator. This program is available at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.
I created this cluster using Stella 4d: Polyhedron Navigator. This program is available at http://www.software3d.com/Stella.php.